Australian War Memorial photos

This week, I’m posting a small collection of photographs from the Australian War Memorial, at Canberra, Australia. These photos are in no particular order but relate to the Battle of Manila and the liberation of Australian internees in the Philippines. I am not posting descriptions of these photos, as most of them are self-explanatory.

Click on any of the photos to enlarge, but unfortunately, these are not high-definition photos. For print quality images, prints, or for commercial uses please contact the Australian War Memorial. If you reuse these photos, please reference AWM as the source.

On their website, the AWM also has a feature article on VP Day: Victory in the Pacific, and an article on the Japanese surrender at Morotai, on 9 September 1945.

Please use the comment form if you have any comments, corrections, questions or if you recognize any of the unnamed people in the photos.

MANILA, THE PHILIPPINES, 1945. LEGISLATIVE BUILDING, BADLY SHELL DAMAGED. (DONOR: B. COOPER) SEE ALSO P082/68/13,14.MANILA, THE PHILIPPINES, 1945. FINANCE BUILDING, EXTENSIVELY DAMAGED BY ARTILLERY FIRE. (DONOR: B. COOPER; PHOTOGRAPHER: ROXAS ).
SANTO TOMAS, THE PHILIPPINES, 1945. GENERAL BLAMEY SPEAKING WITH AUSTRALIAN CIVILIAN INTERNEE TOM RICHARDS AT SANTO TOMAS UNIVERSITY INTERNMENT CAMP. AT LEFT IS FRANK BUTTFIELD (DONOR: B. COOPER).SANTO TOMAS, THE PHILIPPINES, 1945. SERGEANT MATT LACEY; LEADING AIRCRAFTMAN BLUE CUTLER AND FLYING OFFICER BRUCE COOPER, OF THE 6TH WIRELESS UNIT, RAAF. CUTLER IS HOLDING PAM BUTTFIELD, WHO WAS BORN IN THE SANTO TOMAS UNIVERSITY INTERNMENT CAMP. (DONOR: B. COOPER).
MANILA, THE PHILIPPINES, 1945. DAMAGED POST OFFICE AND SANTA CRUZ BRIDGE IN THE FOREGROUND. PARTIALLY DEMOLISHED JONES BRIDGE IN THE BACKGROUND, BEFORE IT WAS REPLACED BY A BAILEY BRIDGE (DONOR: B. COOPER).MANILA, THE PHILIPPINES, 1945. SAN ANTONIO DE PADUA CHURCH, RUINED BY BOMBING AND SHELLFIRE. (DONOR: B. COOPER; PHOTOGRAPHER: ROXAS).
MANILA, THE PHILIPPINES, 1945. FORMER INTERNEES FROM SANTO TOMAS UNIVERSITY INTERNMENT CAMP WITH RAAF PERSONNEL AT NICHOLLS FIELD AIRSTRIP PRIOR TO RETURNING TO AUSTRALIA AFTER LIBERATION. THE CIVILIANS ARE FRANK AND PHYL BUTTFIELD AND THEIR DAUGHTER PAM. RAAF PERSONNEL ARE SERGEANT MATT LACEY (REAR); LEADING AIRCRAFTMAN "BLUE" CUTLER (CENTRE) AND LAC E. GWYTHER (SQUATTING). (DONOR: B. COOPER).MANILA, THE PHILIPPINES, 1945. FORMER INTERNEES IN A TRUCK AT NICHOLLS FIELD AIRSTRIP PRIOR TO LEAVING FOR AUSTRALIA AFTER LIBERATION. FROM LEFT, ABE (SURNAME UNKNOWN) AND PAULA PRATT, WHO WERE ENGAGED TO BE MARRIED; MARIE PRESTON HOLDING PAM BUTTFIELD, WHO WAS BORN IN THE SANTO TOMAS UNIVERSITY INTERNMENT CAMP. (DONOR: B. COOPER).
MANILA, THE PHILIPPINES, 1945. FAR EASTERN UNIVERSITY AND QUEZON BOULEVARD, SHOWING AMERICAN TRUCKS IN THE STREET. (DONOR: B. COOPER).MANILA, THE PHILIPPINES, 1945. JAPANESE BARRICADES SET UP IN THE STREETS OF MANILA. (DONOR: B. COOPER; PHOTOGRAPHER: ROXAS).
MANILA, THE PHILIPPINES, 1945. LOURDES CHURCH IN THE WALLED CITY OF MANILA, BADLY DAMAGED BY SHELLFIRE. (DONOR: B. COOPER; PHOTOGRAPHER: ROXAS).MANILA, THE PHILIPPINES, 1945. MANILA CATHEDRAL, IN RUINS. (DONOR: B. COOPER; PHOTOGRAPHER: ROXAS).
MANILA, THE PHILIPPINES, 1945. THE ESCOLTA IN MANILA, WITH THE PHILIPPINES NATIONAL BANK BUILDING ON THE LEFT. THIS STREET WAS THE MAIN BUSINESS SECTION OF MANILA. (DONOR: B. COOPER).MANILA, THE PHILIPPINES, 1945. A STADIUM FOR JAI ALAI (FILIPINO NATIONAL BALL AND RACQUET GAME). BADLY DAMAGED BY SHELLFIRE. (DONOR: B. COOPER; PHOTOGRAPHER: ROXAS).
MANILA, THE PHILIPPINES, 1945. SHELL DAMAGED LEGISLATIVE BUILDING (SEE ALSO P82/68/07,13). APPROXIMATELY 800 TONS OF SHELLS HIT THIS BUILDING, YET FOUR JAPANESE SOLDIERS SURVIVED THE BARRAGE. CITY HALL IN BACKGROUND. (DONOR: B. COOPER; PHOTOGRAPHER: ROXAS).MANILA, THE PHILIPPINES, 1945. THE UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DAMAGED BY SHELLFIRE. SEE ALSO P082/68/20. (DONOR: B. COOPER; PHOTOGRAPHER: ROXAS).
Japanese surrender at Morotai,, 1945, Australian War MemorialVictory in the Pacific, 1945, Australian War Memorial

Spanish family’s Battle of Manila ordeal

The tragedy that befell a non-interned Spanish family is detailed a recent El País article titled Anna Maria: The Spaniard who survived 16 bayonet wounds during the Battle of Manila.

The 28 August 2020 article, by José Manuel Abad Liñán, begins:

“Anna Maria’s first life began in Cebu City in the Philippines on August 23, 1938. That was the day she was brought into the world by her mother Aurora, the daughter of two Catalans from Cerdanyola del Vallès who had immigrated to the Philippines to work in copra, the dried kernel of the coconut which is used in soaps and oils. Her father, Plácido Antonio, had left Onda in the Spanish province of Castellón to work for the prosperous General Tobacco Company of the Philippines (CdF), the first Spanish multinational. In the end, the family moved to Cavite, south of the capital Manila, where speaking Spanish did not clash so much with chabacano, the creole language spoken by the local population.”

Anna Maria Aguilella arriving in Barcelona in 1946

Anna Maria Aguilella arriving in Barcelona in 1946

At points, it is a very difficult story for me to read, because it echos what happened to my family during the Battle of Manila. In that instance, my mother and grandmother, together with their neighbors, were taken out of their homes in Manila by the Japanese to be shot. Luckily for them, and me, that didn’t happen. However, the outcome for Anna Maria’s family was far more tragic. I think that it is important to read for those who were inside, and outside of, the camps, showing the trauma that far outlasts the experience.

Link to the full article in El País.

Another collection of Photographs

This week, I’m showcasing a collection of photographs from the Pierce Library, at Eastern Oregon University, called the Fred Hill World War II Photographs. Fred served during the War and took many photographs during his service. He also collected photos from others, so some of these may have been published before in books, articles, websites, etc.

Click on any of the photos to enlarge. Unfortunately, these are not high-definition photos. For print quality images, prints, or high resolution tiff files, or for commercial uses please contact the Library Director at Eastern Oregon University. If you reference any of these photos, please cite Pierce Library, Eastern Oregon University, as the source.

Please use the comment form if you have any comments, corrections, questions or if you recognize any of the unnamed people in the photos. I am also looking for people to view a short Japanese propaganda video shot at Santo Tomás early during the War. I am hoping to annotate a version of the video with comments and identify any of the recognizable internees.

Fred Hill near Dulag, PhilippinesFred Hill near Dulag, Philippines
Santo Tomás Internment Camp (STIC) shown from street,1945Santo Tomás Internment Camp (STIC) shown from street, 1945
Two young women at STIC after liberation, 1945Beulah Mae Schechter and Patricia Muriel Chittick at STIC after liberation, 1945
U.S. Captain Price with two internee children, 1945U.S. Captain Price with two internee children, 1945
Two young women handling mail at STIC after liberation, 1945Two young women handling mail at STIC after liberation, 1945
Indoor mail call at STIC, 1945Indoor mail call at STIC, 1945
View of Manila from the tower at STIC, 1945View of Manila from the tower at STIC, 1945
Aerial view of Corregidor on 16 February 1945Aerial view of Corregidor on 16 February 1945
U.S. infantryman near the mouth of Malita Tunnel on Corregidor, 1945.jpgU.S. infantryman near the mouth of Malinta Tunnel on Corregidor, 1945
Fred Hill and pals taking a break, 1944Fred Hill and pals taking a break, 1944

Another batch of NARA photos

Following is but another set of ten photographs downloaded from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). They are all in the public domain and can be freely printed, downloaded, or circulated. Many of these photos have been used before in books, magazines and websites. The description for each of the photos is to the right of the photo. Photos in this, and future, series will include STIC, Los Baños, Baguio, Old Bilibid, the Battle of Manila, Liberation, etc. If you publish any of these photographs, please cite the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), as the source.

Because there are so many photos, I will continue to post them in weekly batches of ten. Eventually, they will be collected into various photo albums on this site. Click any of the photos to enlarge. Please use the comment form if you have any questions or if you recognize any of the people in the photos.

Many thanks to Lexi Zotomayor for identifying last week’s photo of some former internees in the shade of an Army transport plane as that of Chief Nurse, Laura Mae Cobb, and the rest of the liberated U.S. Navy nurses from Los Baños.

Next week, I will begin publishing photographs from other sources.

Liberated Los Banos internees talking with GIs 1945Liberated Los Baños internees, Albertina Janssens and Mary Martha Brown, talk with U.S. liberators, February 1945
Some newly liberated Los-Banos internees during evacuation, February 1945Some newly liberated Los Baños internees during evacuation, February 1945
U.S. bombing raid on Cebu City, 1945U.S. bombing raid on Cebu City, 1945
Captured Japanese soldiers, 1945Captured Japanese soldiers, 1945
Carabao amunition-train Leyte, 1945Carabao amunition-train on Leyte, 1945
Filipino guerrilla unit LuzonFilipino guerrilla unit on Luzon, 1945
Three liberated POWs from Old Bilibid Prison being fed, February 1945Three liberated POWs from Old Bilibid Prison being fed, February 1945
Ex-POW Arthur Raynoldsvisiting Old Bilibid Prison graveyard, 1945Ex-POW Arthur Raynolds visiting Old Bilibid Prison graveyard, 1945
U.S. tank-destroyer outside Manila Legislature Building, February 1945U.S. tank-destroyer outside Manila Legislature Building, February 1945
Repatriation STIC US Army nurses, February 1945Repatriation of STIC U.S. Army nurses, 1945

Yet more NARA photos

Following is yet another set of ten photographs downloaded from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). They are all in the public domain and can be freely printed, downloaded, or circulated. Many of these photos have been used before in books, magazines and websites. The description for each of the photos is to the right of the photo. Photos in this, and future, series will include STIC, Los Baños, Baguio, Old Bilibid, the Battle of Manila, Liberation, etc. If you publish any of these photographs, please cite the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), as the source.

Because there are so many photos, I will continue to post them in weekly batches of ten. Eventually, they will be collected into various photo albums on this site. Click any of the photos to enlarge. Please use the comment form if you have any questions or if you recognize any of the people in the photos.

Liberated Los Banos internees lining up for meal at New Bilibid Prison, February1945Liberated Los Baños internees lining up for meal at New Bilibid Prison, February1945
Liberated Los Banos internees being fed in meal hall a New Bilibid Prison, February 1945Liberated Los Baños internees being fed in meal hall a New Bilibid Prison, February 1945
Liberated Los Banos internees being checked into New Bilibid 1945Liberated Los Baños internees being checked into New Bilibid Prison, 1945, with the Red Cross giving out cigarettes and chocolate.
Baguio bombing damage 1945Baguio bombing damage, 1945
Filipino guerrillas conferring with American GIs, 1945Filipino guerrillas conferring with American GIs, 1945
First helicopter in the Philippines, Leyte 1944First helicopter in the Philippines, Leyte 1944
American paratroopers landing on Corregidor, 1945American paratroopers landing on Corregidor, 1945
American pilot walks away from crashed P-38 LightningAmerican pilot walks away from his crashed P-38 Lightning
First former STIC internees awaiting evacuation, 1945U.S. Navy nurses wait beneath aircraft on the way to being first of the former Los Baños internees to be evacuated in 1945. Chief Nurse, Laura Mae Cobb, can be seen on the right conversing with a U.S. serviceman.
Civilians bombed-out by the Japanese in Tacloban, Leyte 1945Civilians bombed-out by the Japanese in Tacloban, Leyte 1945

Still more NARA photos

Following is another set of ten photographs downloaded from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). They are all in the public domain and can be freely printed, downloaded, or circulated. Many of these photos have been used before in books, magazines and websites. The description for each of the photos is to the right of the photo. Photos in this, and future, series will include STIC, Los Baños, Baguio, Old Bilibid, the Battle of Manila, Liberation, etc. If you publish any of these photographs, please cite the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), as the source.

Because there are so many photos, I will continue to post them in weekly batches of ten. Eventually, they will be collected into various photo albums on this site. Click any of the photos to enlarge. Please use the comment form if you have any questions or can supply additional information for any of the photos.

Three former Santo Tomás interees speak with U.S. Army soldiers, 1945.  Liz Irvine is third from right.Three young former Santo Tomás internees speak with U.S. Army personnel, 1945. Elizabeth Lautzenhiser, later known as Liz Irvine, is the third person on the right.
Newly liberated Los Baños internees enjoying meal at New Bilibid Prison, February 1945Newly liberated Los Baños internees enjoying a meal at New Bilibid Prison, February 1945
Newly liberated children from Los Baños internees enjoying meal at New Bilibid Prison, February 1945Newly liberated children from Los Baños eating at New Bilibid Prison, February 1945
Rescuing two downed American pilots, a former San Francisco banker, and a guerrilla leader on Luzon, 1945The rescuing of two downed American pilots, a former San Francisco banker, and a guerrilla leader on a lake on Luzon, 1945
3-year-old Bobby Tangen with U.S. Air Force personnel after liberation from Old Bilibid Prison, 19453-year-old Robert Tangen with U.S. Air Force personnel after Bobby's liberation from Old Bilibid Prison, 1945
Elmer Mocklin and Charles Bradfield pushing cart with two caskets of internees killed in Japanese shelling of STIC, February 1945Elmer Mocklin and Charles Bradfield pushing a cart with the caskets of two other internees killed in Japanese shelling of STIC, February 1945
Allied troops advancing past Manila's heavily damaged Post Office, February 1945Allied troops advancing past Manila's heavily damaged Post Office, February 1945
Actor Lew Ayres, "Dr. Kildare, serving in the Philippines in 1945.American actor Lew Ayres, aka "Dr. Kildare," serving in the Philippines in 1944.
Former Los Baos internees-clean-meal-kits-at-New-Bilibid-Prison, 1945Former Los Baños internees clean their meal kits at New Bilibid Prison, February 1945
U.S. Army troops with newly liberated Japanese-beer, Luzon,1945U.S. Army troops with newly liberated Japanese beer, found on Luzon,1945

Even more NARA photos

Following is another set of ten photographs downloaded from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). They are all in the public domain and can be freely printed, downloaded, or circulated. Many of these photos have been used before in books and magazines. The description for each of the photos is to the right of the photo. Photos in this, and future, series will include STIC, Los Baños, Baguio, Old Bilibid, the Battle of Manila, Liberation, etc. If you publish any of these photographs, please cite the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), as the source.

Because there are so many photos, I will continue to post them in weekly batches of ten. Eventually, they will be collected into various photo albums on this site. Click any of the photos to enlarge. Please use the comment form if you have any questions or can supply additional information for any of the photos.

Wounded-Los-Banos-internee-being-evacuated-February-1945A wounded Los Baños internee being evacuated after liberation, February 1945
Archibald and Nicholas Mathews taking shelter at STIC during February 1945 Japanese shellingArchibald and Nicholas Mathews taking shelter at STIC during February 1945 Japanese shelling
Mexican pilots serving in the Philippines, 1945Mexican pilots serving in the 201st Fighter Squadron in the Philippines, 1945
A U.S. B-25 bomber attacking a Japanese destroyer in Ormoc Bay, Leyte, 1944
The Bowie family, with new baby Lea, after 1945 Los Baños liberationThe Bowie family, with new baby Lea, after 1945 Los Baños liberation
New U.S. Army- nurses arriving at STIC, 1945"To relieve the nursing problem of Santo Tomás University camp, recently liberated by our forces in Manila, Luzon, P.I., a shipment of U.S. Army nurses arrive in the compound and are immediately put to work in 1945."
G.I.'s cooking meal for ex-Los Baños internees, 1945G.I.'s cooking meal for ex-Los Baños internees, 1945
Bomb damage to the Yokohama Bank, Manila 1945Bomb damage to the Yokohama Bank, Manila 1945
Invading Japanese troops crossing-river on Luzon, January 1942Invading Japanese troops crossing river on Luzon, January 1942
Newly liberated Los Baños-internees en route to New Bilibid Prison, February 1945Newly liberated Los Baños internees en route to New Bilibid Prison, February 1945

More NARA Photos

Following is another set of ten photographs downloaded from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). They are all in the public domain and can be freely printed, downloaded, or circulated. Many of these photos have been used before in books and magazines. The description for each of the photos is to the right of the photo. Photos in this, and future, series will include STIC, Los Baños, Baguio, Old Bilibid, the Battle of Manila, Liberation, etc. If you publish any of these photographs, please cite the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), as the source.

Because there are so many photos, I will continue to post them in weekly batches of ten. Eventually, they will be collected into various photo albums on this site. Click any of the photos to enlarge. Please use the comment form if you have any questions or can supply additional information for any of the photos.

Newly liberated Los Banos internees being evacuated, February 1945Internees wounded in the taking of a prison camp at Los Baños, Luzon, Philippine Islands, await evacuation.
Mr. & Mrs. Michael O'Hara and family, February 1945Mr. & Mrs. Michael O'Hara, and children, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, liberated from a prison camp at Los Baños in February 1945, are interviewed by an Army representative before boarding an Amtrack. The O'Hara family, from left to right: Kathleen, Michael, Michael Jr., and Lorraine, February 1945 after liberation.
Sister Mary Alphonsa Bergeron at liberation, February 1945"A happy nun, Sister Mary Alphonsa held prisoner by the Japanese in Los Baños Internment Camp, Luzon, tells of her deliverance, to Cpl. Vick Campbell of Schenectady, New York."
Joyous internees as they arrive at New Bilibid Prison, Luzon, where they were to receive medical attention, food and clothing."Joyous internees as they arrive at New Bilibid Prison, Luzon, where they were to receive medical attention, food and clothing. The Japanese did not respect the clergy; the priest had been interned at the Los Baños."
Members of a tank corps talk with liberated internee Bernard Herzog, 1945Members of a tank corps listen intently as an internee, Bernard Herzog, who lost 78 pounds and is suffering from Beri-Beri, talks over the days he spent In the Santo Tomás Camp In Manila.
U.S. Liberation forces oversee cleaning of Old Bilibid Prison, 1945U.S. Liberation forces oversee cleaning of Old Bilibid Prison, 1945. All furniture and bedding were burned and buildings were cleaned and fumigated and cleaned for housing of prisoners until they could be moved to a rear area.
STIC burials of former internee, 1945A simple ceremony is held within the compound of Santo Tomás as our honored dead are laid to rest. A group of liberated internees witness the ceremony conducted by the Rev. in former prison camp garden.
Destroyed Japanese plane, 1945, San MiguelA destroyed Japanese plane, a Mitsubishi Ki-21 "Sally," 1945, San Miguel airfield.
Cavite, in Manila Bay, after Allied bombing, 1945

“Rampage” now available!

James M. Scott’s new book, Rampage: MacArthur, Yamashita, and the Battle of Manila, is available now in print and Kindle formats. The 640-page book contains 16 pages of illustrations and 10 maps. General MacArthur’s visits to Old Bilibid Prison and Santo Tomas Internment Camp are detailed. The summary at Amazon.com states:

The twenty-nine-day battle to liberate Manila resulted in the catastrophic destruction of the city and a rampage by Japanese forces that brutalized the civilian population. Landmarks were demolished, houses were torched, suspected resistance fighters were tortured and killed, countless women were raped, and their husbands and children were murdered. American troops had no choice but to battle the enemy, floor by floor and even room by room, through schools, hospitals, and even sports stadiums. In the end, an estimated 100,000 civilians lost their lives in a massacre as heinous as the Rape of Nanking.

Cody K. Carlson, in his review in the Deseret News, says:

The heart of this book, however, is the stories of death and suffering inflicted upon the Filipino people, as well as other ethnicities, at the hands of a vengeful Japanese military whose soldiers knew they could not defeat the Americans. Scott examines massacre after massacre, such as the butchering that took place when Japanese marines entered a Red Cross hospital and indiscriminately bayonetted and shot both patients and staff despite pleas for mercy. No one was spared, not even Filipino film star Corazon Noble, who lived to later testify that she had been bayonetted nine times by the Japanese. Her infant had been bayoneted three times and died. Similar tales of death occurred at places like the German Club, De Le Salle and at St. Paul’s College, as well as countless other incidents that wove together during the battle like a macabre tapestry.

In his review in The Post and Courier, Jonathan Sanchez writes:

In Rampage, the war is agonizingly and microscopically close: the enemy soldiers, the Filipino and American citizens, the American generals. We see what they eat, what they wear, how they survive, how they die.

The review in the Kirkus Reviews states:

In 1945, Douglas MacArthur returned to the Philippines as he had promised, wanting nothing more than a spectacular military parade through the streets of Manila. The Japanese commander of forces in the field, Tomoyuki Yamashita, the “Tiger of Malaya,” intended to oblige by withdrawing his soldiers from the city, but an admiral named Sanji Iwabuchi had other ideas. Defying orders, he commanded his sailors and marines to dig in for a house-to-house defense of the city, co-opting some army units in the bargain. With certain death their only option, Iwabuchi’s command embarked on a campaign of atrocities in which more than 100,000 Filipinos and foreign nationals were slaughtered, with orders that they be grouped to save ammunition and then disposed of by burning buildings and, with them, material evidence of the massacre.

In his review in the Wall Street Journal (requires subscription), Jonathan W. Jordan states:

Mr. Scott does one of the finest jobs in recent memory of cutting out the middleman and letting the participants — hundreds of them — tell their harrowing bits of a kaleidoscopic wartime tragedy. The result is an eloquent testament to a doomed city and its people. “Rampage” is a moving, passionate monument to one of humanity’s darkest moments.

On 2 November 2018, Bob Drogin, wrote in the Los Angeles Times, in his review:

Scott, who was a 2016 Pulitzer Prize finalist for “Target Tokyo,” focuses in part on the 7,500 or so Americans and others held as prisoners of war or civilian internees in squalid conditions, and their dramatic rescue by U.S. troops. Although some of those stories are familiar, he adds a heart-rending portrayal of the brutal life they endured.

Other books by James M. Scott include Target Tokyo: Jimmy Doolittle and the Raid that Avenged Pearl Harbor, The War Below: The Story of Three Submarines that Battled Japan, and The Attack on the Liberty: The Untold Story of Israel’s Deadly 1967 Assault on a U.S. Spy Ship.