War Babies: Born in Captivity

Mr. & Mrs. Hal Bowie and baby daughter Leah. Los Banos Interment Camp survivors, Laguna, Philippines 1945

Mr. & Mrs. Hal Bowie and baby daughter Leah,
Laguna, Philippines 1945
(U.S. National Archives and Records Administration)

From the start, the internees were segregated by sex to keep even married couples from fraternizing with each other. But, despite the Japanese’s best efforts, babies continued to be born in the camps even after the first year of internment. In his 1946 book, Santo Tomas Interment Camp, Frederic Stevens listed 75 “war babies” born inside that camp. Broken down by year, the number of births were:

  • 1942: 45
  • 1943: 14
  • 1944: 14
  • 1945:  2
  • Total: 75

When adding in the births from all the camps, and from outside the camps, the number of births were:

  • 1941:   8
  • 1942: 83
  • 1943: 26
  • 1944: 33
  • 1945:  22
  • Total: 172

The following table lists the children of “enemy alien” internees, and non-internees, born in the Philippines during World War II. The table can be sorted by name, date of birth, or camp where each child was born.

Allen, Henderson ReamMAmericanBaguio Internment Camp1942/07/04
Anderson, Sheila MildredFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/09/20
Angeny, Carol LouisFAmericanBaguio Internment Camp1942/01/19
Atkinson, Ngaire JoanFNew ZealanderSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/05/17
Aucoin, Dorothy AnnFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/04/04
Barnes, Peter SheldonMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/10/14
Barnes, Thomas FreemanMAmericanNot interned1945/3/27
Barngrover, Francis Victor EdwinMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1945/01/20
Bartges, Woodrow Allen Jr.MAmericanBaguio Internment Camp1942/03/27
Barz, Ronald RichardMAmericanBaguio Internment Camp1942/05/01
Bellis, ShielaFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1943/08/09
Boisseree, Camille SylviaFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1944/11/13
Boisseree, Jacqueline JosetteFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/07/12
Bowie, Leah LourdesFAmericanLos Banos Internment Camp1944/07/16
Boyd, Thelma RoseFAmericanNot interned1943/11/23
Brown, Iain Alistair CarltonMBritishSanta Tomas Internment Camp1942/01/10
Browne, Leslie Colvin Jr.MAmericanLos Banos Internment Camp1945/01/02
Brummett, Tania GraceFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/05/07
Bucher, George ScottMAmericanLos Banos Internment Camp1942/01/30
Bush, Philip ClydeMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1943/07/03
Bush, William RaymondMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1944/12/26
Butler, Alan SullowayMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1943/05/28
Buttfield, Pamela MarieFAustralianSanto Tomas Internment Camp1943/05/07
Cadwallader, Geraldine BeverlyFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/03/22
Cameron, IanMBritishSanto Tomas Internment Camp1944/12/26
Carlson, Lawrence RayMAmericanCebu Internment Camp1942/02/24
Carroll, Sharon CheetahFAmericanInternment Camp Shanghai1944/03/07
Carroll, William SingletonMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1941/12/28
Casanave, Peter AlbertMAmericanLos Banos Internment Camp1945/01/09
Clingen, Elizabeth Ruth "Betty"FAmericanLos Banos Internment Camp1945/03/01
Cobb, Bayless Earl IVMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/10/05
Collyer, Peter DavidMAmericanBaguio Internment Camp1942/02/15
Colquhoun, Thomas Robert MBritishNot interned1945/03/30
Connor, Frances ElizabethFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/07/12
Cotterman, AdrienneFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1943/05/29
Crabb, Janice LeeFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/02/26
Crabb, Philip WilliamMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1944/11/04
Craven, Henry TruxtonMAmericanLos Banos Internment Camp1944/12/18
James Snodgrass Craw Jr. MBritishSanto Tomas Internment Camp1941/12/19
Josephine CrookeFAmericanNot interned1942/08/05
Cutting, Alan Bruce Jr.MAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1941/12/09
Deane, SueOlive S.FBritishSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/02/01
Dirks, Anna RaeFAmericanBaguio Internment Camp1942/09/01
Duckworth, Jean MaryFBritishSanto Tomas Internment Camp1944/11/18
Edmonds, Merrill WalterMCanadianSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/08/29
Ellsworth, AliceFAmericanNot interned1942/04/16
Everett, Norris Newcomb "Skip" MAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/01/19
Fanton, Doris BernadetteFAmericanNot interned1945/02/14
Fee, Judith BelleFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/08/22
Fernandez, Manuel Tortosa Jr.MAustralianSanto Tomas Internment Camp1943/01/08
Fertig, Susan BeatriceFAmericanNot interned1944/01/09
Flory, James ArthurMAmericanBaguio Internment Camp1942/04/03
Foley, Michael MerrickMAmericanBaguio Internment Camp1942/06/15
Fox, Christopher CharlesMBritishSanto Tomas Internment Camp1943/09/09
Francisco, ElizabethFAmericanLos Banos Internment Camp1945/02/14
Gamber, GlennMAmericanNot interned1944/07/16
Gibbs, CandaceFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/03/27
Goldsborough, ElizabethFAmericanNot interned1944/01/25
Gispert, Maria TeresaFBritishSanto Tomas Internment Camp1943/10/09
Gray, Florence JuliaFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1944/04/03
Hale, Richard LloydMAmericanBaguio Internment Camp1944/05/08
Hampton, James J. RaymondMAmericanNot interned1943/08
Hanks, JulietteFAmericanNot interned1943/10/31
Harris, Virginia FAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1943/09/27
Harrison, Charles HughesMAmericanBaguio Internment Camp1942/03/22
Henderson, John GardinerMAmericanNot interned1945/04/25
Herlinger, Ann MarieFAmericanNot interned1943/10/20
Hess, Victor GlenMAmericanLos Banos Internment Camp1942/08/12
Heys, Albert VictorMBritishSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/07/02
Hicklin, Richard Howard Jr.MAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1943/03/25
High, Richard AnthonyMBritishSanto Tomas Internment Camp1943/09/19
Holter, Heather AnneFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/03/29
Howie, Beverley JoanFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1943/08/17
Howie, Dianne JoyceFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1941/12/24
Hurst, Elise AnneFBritishSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/01/30
Ipekdjian, GeorgeMStatelessNot interned1943/09/26
Johnson, JoyceFAmericanNot interned1943/06/05
Jones, Susan MarieFAmericanDavao Internment Camp1942/04/17
Juhan, Herman JamesMAmericanNot interned1945/04/29
Junkin, William Francis IIIMAmericanBaguio Internment Camp1942/02/15
Keiffer, Miriam Grace "Mimi"FAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1941/12/11
Keiffer, PatriciaFAmericanNot interned1945/06/01
Keller, Stanley WarrenMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1944/01/30
Kelsey, Lloyd MichaelMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/07/05
Kienstra, Lucy MarieFAmericanNot interned1942/07/14
Kinloch, Joyce MadelineFAmerican-PortugueseNot interned1942/04/02
Kneebone, Terrence HolmesMAmericanBaguio Internment Camp1942/05/01
Lacey, KristinFAmericanLos Banos Internment Camp1944/10/27
Larsen, ValerieFAmericanNot interned1944/03/06
Leslie, Mary Grace FAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/08/13
Livesay, Thomas GranvilleMAmericanNot interned1942/07/15
Livingston, Carrol Clermont Jr.MAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/08/28
Loft, Arthur TownleyMBritishSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/10/29
Macleod, John AmendMBritishSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/06/05
MacWilliam, Richard Niven Jr.MBritishNot interned1945/05/06
MacWilliam, ScottMBritishBacolod Internment Camp1942/04/16
Magnuson, Karen LandisFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/02/25
Mather, Sarah AnnaFAmericanBaguio Internment Camp1942/01/01
McCoy, Lois KathleenFAmericanLos Banos Internment Camp1945/02/20
McGinley, Richard BellMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/07/15
McNaughton, Joan LoisFAmericanDavao Internment Camp1942/09/25
Mill, Joseph FletcherMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1943/01/19
Miller, Russell MearesMAmericanNot interned1945/04/19
Minton, Elizabeth VictoriaFAmericanNot interned1942/07/07
Morris, Garnet Green IllMCanadianBaguio Internment Camp1942/02/24
Morrison, Sharon SusieFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1944/10/06
Morrison, William O'NeilMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/09/15
Moule, LindaFAmericanBaguio Internment Camp1942/01/15
Mount, Patricia GeneFAmericanBaguio Internment Camp1942/04/10
Nash, Roy LeslieMAmericanLos Banos Internment Camp1943/05/24
Newland, Marilyn MonaFAmericanNot interned1945/05/30
Newland, Paul VernonMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1943/05/06
Nicholson, EmmaFAmericanNot interned1942/05/26
O'Hara, Kathleen FrancisFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/06/24
O'Hara, Michael Joseph Jr.MAmericanLos Banos Internment Camp1944/08/11
Oliver, Richard DanaMAmericanNot interned1945/04/08
Oswald, RobertMAmericanNot interned1945/02/03
Patton, Richard A.MAmericanNot interned1945/2/17
Percival, John DerekMAustralianSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/05/19
Peters, Sadie Ann MarieFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1944/10/06
Plowman, Claire ElizabethFAmericanLos Banos Internment Camp1942/06/02
Powell, GeorgianaFAmericanNot interned1944/02/22
Pritchett, Gordon HarryMAustralianSanto Tomas Internment Camp1944/08/04
Ransom, Gail PatienceFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/06/17
Renfrow, William EarnestMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1943/08/30
Renfrow, Winifred VaughnieFAmericanNot interned1945/02/28
Rivera, FrancisMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1943/04/20
Robb, Robert Yelton Jr.MAmericanNot interned1944/01/05
Rooney, Kathleen Patricia FAmericanSanta Tomas Internment Camp1944/12/13
Rose, Gloria MargaretFBritishSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/03/24
Roth, Frederick John IIIMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/07/28
Russell, John GeorgeMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1941/12/19
Rynd, Catherine AnnFBritishBaguio Internment Camp1942/03/17
Scaff, Lawrence AlvinMAmericanLos Banos Internment Camp1942/04/22
Scheuermann, Dennis FridayMAmericanLos Banos Internment Camp1942/03/05
Schratz, Joseph MartinMAmericanNot interned1944/09/01
Scott, Richard HawkinsMAmericanBaguio Internment Camp1942/01/30
Searl, Dorothy JanetFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/07/12
Searl, Frances Ann Searl, Baby GirlFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1944/04/16
Seawell, Charlotte ElizabethFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/07/13
Seawell, Walter RichardMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1944/04/22
Seitz, Cynthia KatherineFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/01/29
Sherk, Gerry AnnMAmericanLos Banos Internment Camp1944/01/23
Slesinger, Rosita CaridadFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/09/26
Slesinger, VictorMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1945/02/15
Smith, William GilbertMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/07/15
Spencer, William Alexander ReidMAmericanNot interned1944/05/09
Stagner, Rosalind C.MAmericanNot interned1944/02/01
Staley, Allan EdwardMBritishSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/05/28
Stevens, PhillipMAmericanNot interned1942/04/11
Strait, Evelyn KayFAmericanNot interned as of July 1, 19441942/01/06
Swinton, Joyce LoveFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1944/12/05
Taapken, Edward KurtMNetherlandSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/10/10
Tangen, Robert ErnestMAmericanBaguio Internment Camp1942/05/28
Taylor, Janice AllaineFAmericanBaguio Internment Camp1941/12/25
Taylor, Susan ElizabethFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1943/07/15
Thomas, Elizabeth FranciscoFAmericanLos Banos Internment Camp1945/02/14
Tibbetts, Dexter GrantMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1944/12/14
Todd, George IIIMAmericanNot interned1945/04/20
Tulloch, William JamesMAmericanLos Banos Internment Camp1944/11/11
Turner, Harry L. Jr.MAmericanBaguio Internment Camp1942/06/22
Von Stetten, Eric AnthonyMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/08/19
Waters, Mary-AliceFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/01/12
Watkins, Linda JeanFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/05/18
Webster, Murray Alexander Jr.MAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1941/12/10
Weiser, SusanFAmerican ; BritishSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/08/13
Whitaker, Gretchen PenelopeFAmericanNot interned1943/10/07
White, Robert DouglasMAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/03/04
Wichman, Annie MaeMAmericanNot interned1943/05/14
Wichman, Douglas JonathanMAmericanLos Banos Internment Camp1942/09/12
Wightman, William DanaMBritishLos Banos Internment Camp1944/06/29
York, KatherineFAmericanNot interned1944/04/03
Young, JosephMAmericanNot interned1944/10/18
Young, Luis E. IIIMAmericanNot interned1942/06/01
Zemur, YvonneFAmericanSanto Tomas Internment Camp1942/05/28

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