Some 2017 articles involving former civilian internees

Following are some 2017 articles involving former civilian internees of the Philippine prison camps. Click the title to link to the full text:

Hell to Happiness — another former internee perspective

Hell to Happiness, by Patricia V.C. DennisIn late 2015, Australian Patricia V.C. Dennis released her memoir, Hell to Happiness : A Concentration Camp Childhood to a Life of Abundance. Patricia was known as Patricia Veronica Jones, when she was interned with her family in Santo Tomas. Currently available in a Kindle edition, the “book is a true story full of passion, hope and inspiration. International author Patricia Dennis shares what it was like to spend three and a half years growing up in a Japanese concentration camp in the Philippines. Having miraculously survived, she went on to achieve great personal and business triumphs. Patricia’s amazing story provides beautiful lessons on how trust, faith and self-belief can take you from Hell to Happiness.”

Patricia and her family were repatriated to Australia on S.S. David C. Shanks, leaving Tacloban, Leyte, on 26 March 1945, arriving in Townsville, Australia, on 5 April 1945.

Thomas Grover with granddaughters Patricia and Jacqueline Jones, who were released with their parents Australia, 1945

Thomas Grover with granddaughters Patricia and Jacqueline Jones

(courtesy of Argus Newspaper Collection of Photographs, State Library of Victoria)

More articles involving former internees

Following are some 2015-2016 articles involving former internees of the civilian Philippine camps:

A Little-Known STIC Episode, by Martin Meadows

Accounts of the travails of WWII prisoners of the Nipponese always (and understandably) emphasize the obvious subject of food shortages. Such accounts rarely devote much attention to shortages of other kinds of things, and this is a brief attempt to rectify that deficiency. Toward the end of 1944, after nearly three years as Nipponese guests, STIC internees were (needless to say) running short of all kinds of supplies besides food. The focus here is on one of the problems that confronted the STIC central kitchen: it was running out of firewood for cooking the internees’ meager rations. As a result, camp leaders decided to seek unexpected and unusual sources of wood within the camp. And it so happened that room 43 in the Main Building, where I lived along with ca. 60-70 other male inmates, contained a (relatively) bountiful supply of wood.

Room 43 in fact contained perhaps a week’s supply of kitchen firewood; that is because it had been constructed to serve as a U. of Santo Tomás science classroom — likely a chemistry classroom, judging from the following facts. First, at the side of the room adjoining the third-floor hallway, there was an elevated wooden platform, from which professors were able to profess. Second, at one side of the elevated structure was a sink (which, it is worth noting, was extremely convenient for the room’s residents, since we could wash, brush our teeth, etc., without having to trudge to the normally crowded lone third-floor men’s bathroom, which was located at the other end of the building). Third, the room’s concrete floor was visible only around the raised platform, because the rest of the floor was covered by rows of wood flooring, each successive row higher than the one ahead of it (as in a theater, for example), so that all students would have a clear view of the platform (where experiments and demonstrations were performed).

Here it might be of interest to point out the main consequence of living in a room with such flooring. Because of the many raised rows (there must have been around ten of them), for most of the residents’ cots the legs at one end of each cot had to be placed on blocks, so that the cot would be level rather than inclined downward toward the platform. The only exceptions to that were the relatively few cots placed on the very last (highest) row, which was wide enough that cots placed upon it were level without the need for blocks. I was fortunate to have a cot on that top row, thus I did not need to always check to make sure that the cot was not about to slip off a block. (My cot, incidentally, was located by the wall on the left side of the room as one entered from the hallway; the room itself was a large one that had two entrances.)

Sidebar: As best as I can recall, there were three other teen-agers in room 43. Two of them, Harry and Tommy Robinson, were located on the other side of the room; the third, my good friend Eric Sollee, was on my side of the room. Parenthetically, Eric and I played a long-running game of Casino, so long-running that eventually we each had run up a cumulative total score of thousands of points. (Note: Eric, who died in 2008, later became an All-American fencer at Harvard, and a famed fencing coach at MIT.) But I digress. Around the time of the episode at issue, Eric and I were considering the feasibility of victimizing a most annoying person, a noisy chap who constantly coughed and sneezed. We thought about placing his cot on the very edge of one of its blocks, assuming that, at night, his heavy coughing and loud sneezing would shake his rickety cot enough to cause it to slip off its blocks and topple over. (First we made sure that his mosquito netting was not attached to the lines holding up our own netting, otherwise his cot’s fall would also pull down the netting on our end of the room.) But, no doubt fortunately for us, before we could get up the nerve to carry out our plot, the developments described next prevented us from doing so. By the way, I would have preferred to victimize the obnoxious and bedbug-ridden “Skipper” Wilson, about whom I have written before, but his cot was on the top row next to mine and thus did not rest on blocks. And now, boys and girls, as the radio serial announcers used to say, back to our story.

Because of the aforementioned need for firewood, the decision was made to tear out all the wood in room 43 for kitchen use. Our room monitor, Henry Pyle, informed us that, on the scheduled date, we were to arise early and move all of our belongings into the hallway (not a difficult task, involving just a cot and whatever few items were stored underneath it; mosquito nets hung out of the way and thus did not have to be removed). On the appointed day we dutifully did as we had been instructed, causing quite a mess in the hallway and making it nearly impassable, as well as greatly annoying residents of the adjacent rooms. The squad of internees assigned to the job, unshirted and sweating profusely, then spent much of the day ripping up the wood floors and the platform, then hauling off the wood to the kitchen storeroom.

The resulting shambles in room 43 was a sight NOT to behold: clouds of dust filled the air as decades worth of dirt, dead bugs and live insects, spiders, etc. were exposed to the bright light of a sunny day. Most notable of the lot were myriads of cockroaches scurrying and fluttering around; they might have made a nourishing meal had they not been squashed during the proceedings. It is no wonder that, often at night, I had heard cockroaches flying around the room and crashing into my mosquito net. (I am referring to economy-sized Asian roaches, of course, not to the small(er) ones familiar to Americans.)

Another sidebar: I am reminded of the time that my family and I moved into our assigned house upon arriving at the U. of Sierra Leone in 1968; the house had been vacant over the summer, and when I opened a closet door I was met by an incredible torrent of king-size cockroaches. As they sought to flee the closet, I had my hands, or rather feet, full stomping on them.

Back to STIC: Eventually room 43 was cleared of all debris, and by the time it was dark we had managed to move back into our assigned places. At first it seemed a bit strange to be on a level and all-concrete floor, but we quickly got used to the change and greatly enjoyed the room’s improved “quality of life,” although it no longer afforded the opportunity to attempt pranks such as the aborted one described above. — MM

Santo Tomás: A Tale of Two Families

by Robert Colquhoun

Born in October 1938 in Hong Kong, where my father was serving in the British army, and evacuated to the Philippines in July 1940, I was interned with my mother, Elsa Colquhoun (1911-2001), in Santo Tomas in January 1942. She had been working as a stenographer for the American military in Manila. My father, meanwhile, was made a prisoner of war when Hong Kong fell to the Japanese on Christmas Day 1941.

In Santo Tomas my mother met another Englishman, Harold Leney, an unmarried accountant of her age who had been working for a British firm in the Philippines. They fell in love, shared a shanty and by the summer of 1944 she was pregnant. That October Harold, who was part of the garbage crew, was arrested and imprisoned with others for smuggling food and cigarettes into camp – an activity in which I, a six-year-old proudly accompanying them, unwittingly took part. On 30 March 1945, two months after liberation, Mother gave birth to a healthy baby in camp, Thomas (named after Santo Tomas). Days later we sailed for England via the United States.

My father had survived the POW camp in Hong Kong and after the war my parents divorced. My mother and Harold Leney married, settled in London and had twins in 1948. In 1952 Harold took a job in East Africa but was killed in an air crash the following year. My mother returned to England, spent the next twenty years bringing up her children, and in 1975 married her widowed brother-in-law, the husband of Harold’s sister. I have remained close to my Leney siblings throughout my life.

I have now written an illustrated memoir of my time in Santo Tomas which can be downloaded free: SANTO TOMÁS INTERNMENT CAMP: Childhood Memoir of Japanese-Occupied Manila, 1941 – 1945 This 3.7 MB file may be adequate, but a larger 17.3 MB file will give better quality and sharper images.

On the ship which evacuated us from Hong Kong to Manila in 1940 were Anne Balfour, the French-born wife of a British colonial official, and her young family (he was later interned in Hong Kong). Like my mother, she stayed in the Philippines rather than go on to Australia, but as a French national she was not immediately interned when the Philippines fell. Under the Japanese occupation she shared a house in Manila with an unmarried Frenchman, Paul Esmérian (1912-69), who became a surrogate father to her family. As a supporter of General de Gaulle and adherent of the Free French, he was eventually interned in Santo Tomas in June 1943; Anne Balfour and her three children followed a year later. They all survived to liberation in February 1945, but just before Anne and her family sailed for the United States she learnt that her husband, Stephen, had been accidentally killed by an American bomb in his civilian camp in Hong Kong in January 1945.

Contrary perhaps to expectation, Paul Esmérian and Anne Balfour did not marry after the war. She married the well-known English music critic and BBC music administrator, Sir William Glock; and he married a Dutch woman – they later divorced and there were no children.

Free Frenchman

Free Frenchman

Both in occupied Manila and in the camp Esmérian kept a vivid and perceptive diary of the harsh life and worsening conditions around him. Published in France in 1980, it deserves to be better known to an English-speaking audience and, to coincide with the 70th anniversary of our liberation, I have now translated and edited it under the title, A Free Frenchman under the Japanese: The War Diary of Paul Esmérian, Manila, Philippines, 1941-1945. Published by Matador in the UK, this English version of the diary is also available worldwide through usual retailers and booksellers including Amazon.

Articles on 70-year anniversary of STIC Liberation

The reminiscences of George Fisher appear in the appeared today in The Frederick News-Post. The article, titled Interned Americans freed 70 years ago with help of Frederick veteran, describes what Fisher, then a 25-year-old Army private with the 1st Calvary Division, experienced the night that the American tanks broke through the gates of Santo Tomas Internment Camp on 3 February 1945. The short article can be read at this link.

Another article appears today on GMA News Online, Survivors return to PHL 70 years after liberation from UST prison camp. The article begins “for three years during World War II, American Kathy Elfstrom Cronquist lived on the grounds of the University of Santo Tomas, which the Japanese occupiers had turned into a prison camp for over 4,000 American and British civilians living in Manila.

Cronquist was one of the former prisoners of war who visited UST on Tuesday, exactly 70 years since Filipino and American forces liberated the Santo Tomas Internment Camp (STIC) on February 3, 1945.” This article can be read at this link.

Another short article, from Coconuts Manila, is titled 20 internees and families to visit UST today on Battle of Manila anniversary. Unfortunately, it doesn’t name the 20 internees who made this trip, but, luckily, there is a follow-up story which also appears: Battle of Manila survivors, 70 years later. This article profiles Joan Bennett Chapman, Roi Doolan, Tim Crosby, Gerry Ann Schwede and Sascha Jean Weinzheimer Jansen. Click the article titles above to link to the online stories.

Other stories that appeared recently include the Philippine Daily Inquirer article titled “Seize the day” people: Kids of war revisit UST (former internees mentioned include George Baker) and Muscatine man recalls liberating camp 70 years ago this week, which details the reminiscences of former Pfc. Bob Harrison on the STIC liberation and the Battle of Manila.

“Woman of War” profiles the Aaron Family

The Victoria Advocate, of Victoria, Texas, recently ran a 4-part series on an internee family, focusing mainly on daughter, Eileen Aaron. The five members of the family were Eileen Dorothy Aaron, Jean Margaret Aaron, John David Aaron, John Maurice Aaron and Margaret Elizabeth Tyre Aaron. The series covers a lot of territory and has several photographs and maps.

The links to the Woman of War series, from the Victoria Advocate (Victoria, Texas), December 2014, are listed below: