“Rampage” now available!

James M. Scott’s new book, Rampage: MacArthur, Yamashita, and the Battle of Manila, is available now in print and Kindle formats. The 640-page book contains 16 pages of illustrations and 10 maps. General MacArthur’s visits to Old Bilibid Prison and Santo Tomas Internment Camp are detailed. The summary at Amazon.com states:

The twenty-nine-day battle to liberate Manila resulted in the catastrophic destruction of the city and a rampage by Japanese forces that brutalized the civilian population. Landmarks were demolished, houses were torched, suspected resistance fighters were tortured and killed, countless women were raped, and their husbands and children were murdered. American troops had no choice but to battle the enemy, floor by floor and even room by room, through schools, hospitals, and even sports stadiums. In the end, an estimated 100,000 civilians lost their lives in a massacre as heinous as the Rape of Nanking.

Cody K. Carlson, in his review in the Deseret News, says:

The heart of this book, however, is the stories of death and suffering inflicted upon the Filipino people, as well as other ethnicities, at the hands of a vengeful Japanese military whose soldiers knew they could not defeat the Americans. Scott examines massacre after massacre, such as the butchering that took place when Japanese marines entered a Red Cross hospital and indiscriminately bayonetted and shot both patients and staff despite pleas for mercy. No one was spared, not even Filipino film star Corazon Noble, who lived to later testify that she had been bayonetted nine times by the Japanese. Her infant had been bayoneted three times and died. Similar tales of death occurred at places like the German Club, De Le Salle and at St. Paul’s College, as well as countless other incidents that wove together during the battle like a macabre tapestry.

In his review in The Post and Courier, Jonathan Sanchez writes:

In Rampage, the war is agonizingly and microscopically close: the enemy soldiers, the Filipino and American citizens, the American generals. We see what they eat, what they wear, how they survive, how they die.

The review in the Kirkus Reviews states:

In 1945, Douglas MacArthur returned to the Philippines as he had promised, wanting nothing more than a spectacular military parade through the streets of Manila. The Japanese commander of forces in the field, Tomoyuki Yamashita, the “Tiger of Malaya,” intended to oblige by withdrawing his soldiers from the city, but an admiral named Sanji Iwabuchi had other ideas. Defying orders, he commanded his sailors and marines to dig in for a house-to-house defense of the city, co-opting some army units in the bargain. With certain death their only option, Iwabuchi’s command embarked on a campaign of atrocities in which more than 100,000 Filipinos and foreign nationals were slaughtered, with orders that they be grouped to save ammunition and then disposed of by burning buildings and, with them, material evidence of the massacre.

In his review in the Wall Street Journal (requires subscription), Jonathan W. Jordan states:

Mr. Scott does one of the finest jobs in recent memory of cutting out the middleman and letting the participants — hundreds of them — tell their harrowing bits of a kaleidoscopic wartime tragedy. The result is an eloquent testament to a doomed city and its people. “Rampage” is a moving, passionate monument to one of humanity’s darkest moments.

On 2 November 2018, Bob Drogin, wrote in the Los Angeles Times, in his review:

Scott, who was a 2016 Pulitzer Prize finalist for “Target Tokyo,” focuses in part on the 7,500 or so Americans and others held as prisoners of war or civilian internees in squalid conditions, and their dramatic rescue by U.S. troops. Although some of those stories are familiar, he adds a heart-rending portrayal of the brutal life they endured.

Other books by James M. Scott include Target Tokyo: Jimmy Doolittle and the Raid that Avenged Pearl Harbor, The War Below: The Story of Three Submarines that Battled Japan, and The Attack on the Liberty: The Untold Story of Israel’s Deadly 1967 Assault on a U.S. Spy Ship.

John “Jigger” Jay, accountant and cartoonist

By profession, British internee, John Leslie “Jigger” Jay, was an accountant. But he also proved to be an apt cartoonist of daily life at Santo Tomás, and later Los Baños internment camps. His most prominent work was in How We Took It, poems by Alfred J. Stahl and published in New York in October 1945. Jigger traveled on the S.S. Admiral E.W. Eberle leaving Manila on 10 April 1945, arriving in San Pedro, California, on 2 May 1945. He was repatriated on the R.M.S. Scythia leaving Halifax, Nova Scotia, on 10 May 1945, arriving in Liverpool on 25 May 1945, en route to Banstead, Surrey.

Illustration from "How We Took It"

Two pages from “How We Took It,” 1945, by Alfred J. Stahl and John L. “Jigger” Jay

STIC place-mat, by John "Jigger" Jay

STIC place-mat, created by John “Jigger” Jay.
Click on image to expand to see the great detail.


If anyone has more information about Jigger or his work, please use our “Comments” form.

British Commonwealth Civilian Deaths in the Philippines

During World War II, there were approximately 93 civilian deaths in the Philippines from British Commonwealth countries. They are broken down as follows: 67 British, 13 Canadians, 11 Australians and 2 New Zealanders.

The following table details the date and cause of death for each person, if known. After 8 December 1941, a small number joined either the guerrillas or the U.S. Army. Subsequently, a number of them were killed by the Japanese or died on “Hell Ships” while being transported to work camps outside of the Philippines.

All of these names will be incorporated into the next revision of the “In Memoriam” page.

NAMENATIONALITYINTERNMENTDATE OF DEATHCAUSE OF DEATH
Aaron, Margaret Elizabeth BritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1944-06-11Carcinoma of uterus
Andrews, ElviraBritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1944-01-24Died of coronary thrombosis
Aplin, Ada AloysiaBritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-02-03Missing, believed killed by the Japanese
Baker, Mary KleinBritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-10-10Died of Tuberculosis
Boniface, Mark BritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-01-15Died of carcinoma of tuberculosis
Bridle, Arthur AustralianSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-02-03Died of heart disease
Burwell, Walter SimondCanadianSanto Tomás Internment Camp1944-12-30Died of tuberculosis
Carpenter, William GeorgeAustralianSanto Tomás Internment Camp1942-08-08Died of paralysis
Carter, Bessie EnaAustralianSanto Tomás Internment Camp1942-12-16Died of pneumonia
Clear, Charles Arnold BritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-02-05Died of coronary occlusion
Cooke, Doris AnneBritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1942-10-17Died of septicemia
Cooper, Arthur Joseph BritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-01-04Died of beri-beri
Crichton, Alexander MartinBritishDavao POW Camp1944-09-07Died in the sinking of the Shinyo Maru
Crook, Thomas H.BritishPOW Camp 7 Corregidor1944-10-24Died in the sinking of the Arisan Maru
Cruz, Emmie Davis BritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-02-09Died of malnutrition
Deuchars, William McGregorBritishNot interned1942-04-16Died as a result of the sinking of the Yu Sang in Mariveles Harbour
Douglas, Francis (Father)New ZealanderNot interned1943-08-27Executed by the Japanese
Farnes, Walter StanleyBritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1942-06-07Died of pneumonia
Fletcher, Thomas Henry BritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1942-02-15Executed by the Japanese for trying to escape
Fong, Olive AustralianSanto Tomás Internment Camp1943-05-09Died of tuberculosis
Fox, Hubert ThorntonBritishNot Interned as of July 1, 19441945-02-12Killed by the Japanese
Fox, Nattie Perez RubioBritishNot interned1945-02-12Killed by the Japanese
Gamble, Cecil Reginald "Rex"AustralianNot interned -- Guerrilla1943-09-30Killed in enemy action
Garrett, Guy WatkinsBritishNot interned1942-03-01Killed by the Japanese
Gillies, John BritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1942-08-07Died of heart failure
Gomm, Albert B.CanadianCabanatuan POW Camp1944-10-24Died in the sinking of the Arisan Maru
Grant, WilliamBritishCabanatuan POW Camp1944-10-11Died in the sinking of the Arisan Maru
Hair, HelenBritishNot Interned as of July 1, 19441945-02-12Killed by the Japanese
Hair, John McGavinBritishCabanatuan POW Camp1945-01-25Died in the sinking of the Enoura Maru
Hall, Consuelo McMickingBritishNot interned1945-01-31Executed by the Japanese
Harris, Winifred Jean BritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1943-03-26Died of tuberculosis
Harvey, Charles StevensonBritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1944-07-24Died of heart failure, anemia
Herridge, James Russell BritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-03-11Unknown
Higham, Frederick James BritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-01-25Died of beri-beri
Hill, Enoch BritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1942-01-30Died of anemia
Hocking, Leonard WilliamBritishDavao POW Camp1944-09-07Died in the sinking of the Shinyo Maru
Hoey, Thomas BritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1942-08-29Died of heart failure
Hollyer, William George BritishLos Banos Internment Camp1944-12-09Died of hernia
Johnston, AbagailBritishNot interned1942-04-16Died of Tuberculosis and malnutrition
Johnston, JeanBritishNot interned1942-02-05Died of heart disease
Kingcome, Ernest AstellBritishBaguio Internment Camp1943-06-14Died of malnutrition
LaFerriere, Lucien (Rev.)CanadianNational Psychopathic Hospital1945-02-09Executed by the Japanese
Lamy, Leo (Rev.)CanadianNot interned1942-12-19Died of Malaria
Laycock, Blakey BorthwickAustralianSanto Tomás Internment Camp1942-02-15Executed by the Japanese for trying to escape
Lea, Edward BritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-02-24Died of malnutrition
Leblanc, Omer (Rev.)CanadianNot interned1942-08-15Executed by the Japanese
Lees, James AndrewBritishNot interned1942-04-16Killed by the Japanese
Luyendyk, Mary WilhelminaCanadianSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-03-26Unknown
Lynch, Thomas T.AustralianCabanatuan POW Camp1944-12-15Died in sinking of the Oryoku Maru
MacGavin, William BritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1943-11-29Died of high blood pressure
Mahoney, James CyrilBritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-02-09Died of malnutrition
Marcuson, PaulBritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1944-08-04Died of duodenal ulcer
Mason, John RobertBritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-04-02Unknown
Maxwell, Stanley EdwardBritishDavao POW Camp1944-09-07Died in the sinking of the Shinyo Maru
McAvoy, Dora Blanche AustralianSanto Tomás Internment Camp1943-11-01Died of cancer
McCann, Henry EdwardBritishNot interned1942-05-03Died of tumors
McCannus, William BritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1944-09-04Died of unrecorded
Miller, Robert MacVinnieBritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1944-05-07Died of cardiac arrest
Morris, Garnet Green IICanadianBaguio Internment Camp1945-01-09Died in the sinking of the Enoura Maru
Morris, Margaret Helen "Dolly"CanadianBaguio Internment Camp1944-01-27Heart attack
Murray, William R.CanadianSanto Tomás Internment Camp1944-04-26Died of unrecorded
Newson, Clement Charles BritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1942-07-14Died of cancer
Newton, Alexander Cochrane BritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1942-04-28Died of coronary thrombosis
O'Kelly, Philomene Ursula (Sister)BritishNot interned1945-02-10Unknown
Palmentar, StanleyBritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-02-10Died of malnutrition
Peacock, Charles SamuelBritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-01-30Died of beri-beri
Poirier, Leo (Rev.)CanadianNot interned1942-08-15Executed by the Japanese
Ralston, Robert Sr.BritishSanto Tomas Internment Camp1945-02-10Died of malnutrition
Redfern, VictoriaBritishNot interned1945-02-14Killed in action
Robyns-Owen, OwenBritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-01-09Accidental death
Salwood, HerbertBritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-02-10Died of malnutrition
Shaw, John RoyCanadianSanto Tomas Internment Camp1945-01-21Died of old age, starvation
Shrubsole, Cyril Arthur JohnBritishNot interned1944-01-05Presumed killed by the Japanese
Struth, James BarkerBritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1944-06-26Unknown
Telford, William AustralianBaguio Internment Camp1943-05-03Chronic prostatic hypertropy cardia vascular renal disease
Tomkins, John FrederickBritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-02-09Malnutrition; Cancer of intestines
Trimble, Paul HenryAustralianBaguio Internment Camp1942-08-11Ciliana of brain
Walford, Guy BritishSanto Tomas Internment Camp1945-01-14Died of coronary occlusion
Walford, Harold "Laddie"BritishNot Interned as of July 1, 19441945-02-09Missing -- presumed killed by the Japanese
Walford, Nancy Page "Dyney"BritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-02-09Missing -- presumed killed by the Japanese.
Walker, Herbert Bateman BritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1942-11-16Old age
Wallace, WilfredBritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1942-08-01Died of pneumonia
Webb, Mary LumleyBritishNot Interned as of July 1, 19441945-06-23Unknown
Weeks, Henry Edward BritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1942-02-15Executed by the Japanese for trying to escape
Weichel, RichardBritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-02-10Died of malnutrition
Weir, John N.CanadianSanto Tomás Internment Camp1942-09-14Died of pneumonia
Whittle, Harold AllanBritishNot interned1942-04-09Died in the sinking of the Yu Sang in Mariveles Harbour.
Wightman, George M.BritishDavao POW Camp1944-09-07Died in the sinking of the Shinyo Maru
Williams, Caroline Ada "Carrie"AustralianSanto Tomás Internment Camp1944-12-07Died of unrecorded
Williams, Hugh HoskingNew ZealanderLos Baños Internment Camp1945-01-01Acute colitis
Williams, Thomas EllisBritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1942-09-12Died of pulmonary oedema
Woodfine, RobertBritishSanto Tomás Internment Camp1945-03-31Unknown
Yearsley, Robin W.CanadianTokyo POW Camp (Shinjuku)1945-01-26Unknown

More online articles involving internees

Following are some more 2017 articles involving former civilian internees of the Philippine prison camps. Click the title to link to the full text:

Some 2017 articles involving former civilian internees

Following are some 2017 articles involving former civilian internees of the Philippine prison camps. Click the title to link to the full text:

Long Journey Home for British Ex-Internees

RMS Scythia

RMS Scythia

The passenger list for the 1945 voyage of the R.M.S. Scythia from Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Liverpool, England, has just been added to the Repatriation & Rescue page on this website. This is important because it shows the final leg of the long journey back to the UK from the Philippines for over 200 Brits. One passenger was 12-year-old Robin Cooke, whose mother, Doris, died while in STIC in October 1942.

Repatriation Summary:

  • Manila to San Diego: 7,393 miles / 11,898 km
  • San Diego to Halifax, Nova Scotia: 3,685 miles / 5,931 km
  • Nova Scotia – Liverpool: 2,722 miles / 4,380 km

Total: 13,800 miles / 22,209 Kilometers

Download the 7-page Scythia passenger list in PDF format.
List of passengers on the Scythia:
Continue reading

Three Canadian Priests added to “In Memoriam”

After some recent research, I have added Catholic Fathers Henri Desjardins, Omer Leblanc and Leo Poirier to the In Memoriam page on this site. They were working on Mindanao as members of the Société des Missions-Étrangères du Québec (Societas pro missionibus exteris Provinciae Quebecensis’), shortened P.M.E. None of these men were ever interned and a fourth member, Fr. Leo Lamy, died of malaria, on 19 December 1942.

6 of the PME Fathers who escaped the Japanese and internment.  Baganga, 1942.

6 of the PME Fathers who escaped the Japanese and internment. Baganga, 1942.


Courtesy of the UCAN directory:

“When war broke out in December 1941, parochial work came almost to a standstill. In Davao only four PME Fathers were left with Bishop del Rosario, together with the Jesuits Father Garcia and Father Alfredo Paguia. Out of the 23 PME Fathers at that time, seven escaped and took refuge among the pagan tribe of the East Coast of Davao, while the rest were taken prisoners and sent to the concentration camps at University of Santo Tomas in Manila and University of the Philippines in Los Banos, Laguna. Four PME priests died during this period. Father Leo Lamy died of malaria in San Pedro. Father Henri Desjardins disappeared mysteriously on his way from Manay to Caraga. Fathers Leo Poirier and Omer Leblanc who started their work in Santa Cruz were killed by the Japanese soldiers who took them to Pikit, Cotabato province, as prisoners. They were later executed as spys.”

For more information:

Only by the Grace of God now available!

Only by the Grace of God

Now available!

Former internee, Pamela Brink, has announced that her new book, Only by the Grace of God, is now available.  She and her family were interned in three camps during the War: Cebu, Santo Tomás , and Los Baños Internment Camp.

Pamela was only eight-years-old when first interned, but the book also includes the memoirs of her late brothers, Robert and John Brink. The family all survived the War and were repatriated on the M.S. Torrens, arriving in San Francisco on 15 May 1945.

The announcement at Amazon.com has this to say about the book:

Three siblings from the Philippines wrote down what they remembered about being imprisoned by the Japanese during World War II.

Pamela J. Brink, Robert A. Brink, and John W. Brink all survived the ordeal, but only one of them–Pamela–is still alive today. She shares their experiences in this memoir that recounts the horrors of war as seen through the eyes of children.

At age thirteen, John W. was the oldest when they were captured, and his account is likely the most accurate of all three.

Robert and Pamela’s versions are different as they saw everything through younger, more fearful eyes. All three, however, remember being overjoyed when they were rescued from the Los Baños prison camp.

When they were freed, everyone wanted to hear about atrocities, but their slow starvation could not compete with the horrors that Jews suffered in Nazi Germany. Most ignored their tales, and over time, they stopped telling them.

Three adults look back at their childhood experiences as prisoners of war, how they survived, and how they continued on in Only by the Grace of God.

Guerrilla Priest

Guerrilla Priest: An American Family in World War II Philippines

2016 book now available

Stephen Griffiths’ book, Guerrilla Priest,  is now available. Griffiths based his book on the unpublished memoirs of his parents, Alfred and Ernestine Griffiths.

According to the Dancing Moon Press website,

“Guerrilla Priest” captures a special moment in the history of the Pacific War: the formation of the first guerrilla resistance against the Japanese in northern Luzon, Philippines. Major Walter Cushing, Chief Puyao of the Tingguian village of Balbalasang, and Al Griffiths, an Episcopal priest, were key figures in this resistance. Guerrilla Priest describes the events that led to the ambush at Lamonan—disastrous for the Japanese—and the aftermath of that ambush for those who participated. The book also provides an intimate glimpse of the American colonial experience in the Philippines, its impact on the Tingguian people, and a portrait of Japanese soldiers and their commanders that defies stereotype. But perhaps most significantly, it tells the story of how a young American family—Al Griffiths, his wife Nessie, and their infant daughter Katy—managed to survive a horrific war.

Paperback copies of this book are available direct from the author: Stephen Griffiths. Paperbacks as well as eBooks are also available through Amazon.com or ordered through independent book sellers

Jim Crosby relates his STIC memories

Former child internee, James Crosby, talks about his Santo Tomas Internment Camp memories in a recent San Diego Union-Tribune article titled Internee has different memories of war. Jim was 9-years-old when he and his parents, Ralph and Flora, were interned. Ralph was a mining company executive who stayed after Liberation to help rebuild the destroyed mines.

According to the article,

Within three weeks, the interned schoolteachers set up classes again in the university’s chemistry labs. Every subject was taught except American history, which was forbidden by the Japanese.

Crosby didn’t much enjoy going to school, but it passed the time. He said he often despaired that the internment would never end. For distraction, he and his buddies played cops and robbers for hours.

“We didn’t have any guns, so we’d take the long beans from acacia trees and cut them up into little pieces and throw them at each other,” he said.

The article includes two contemporaneous photos of Jim and his family. The full article is available on the San Diego Union-Tribune website.